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 country Report - fishres - sudan

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تاريخ التسجيل : 24/12/2011

مُساهمةموضوع: country Report - fishres - sudan   الجمعة أبريل 05, 2013 6:20 am

• Sudan is a very large country.
• Total area of approximately one million miles square lying in the Northern East part of the African continent.
• Nine countries and the Red Sea surround it. With coastal line of 720km. (see map).
• Population:july 2009 est.- 41,087,825 million
• Capital: Khartoum
• Language: Arabic, English and others
• Currency: Sudanese pound

MAIN WATER BODIES
NAME
White Nile1,000
Blue Nile800

River Nile800

Atbara River1,500

Red sea760

RESERVOIRS
NAME -Gebal Aulia- RIVER - W. Nile- FISH STOCK-1500\ YEAR\1937
NAME –Sennar- RIVER- B. Nile- FISH STOCK-1000\ YEAR\1925
NAME- Roseries- RIVER - B. Nile- FISH STOCK-1700\ YEAR\1966
NAME- Khashim E/G- RIVER- Atbara River- FISH STOCK-800\ YEAR\1964
NAME- Nubia Lake- RIVER- Nile River- FISH STOCK -5000\ YEAR\1964
NAME- Marowe Dam- RIVER - River Nile- FISH STOCK-7000-8000\ YEAR\2009

FRESH WATER FISHERIES
• Sudan is blessed with abundant, suitable resources (land. water and weather) which favors for aquaculture development. There is 6500 km of River water covering an estimated 2 million ha.
• The River Nile and it’s tributaries as a major source of water for agriculture, has also been an important source of fish.
Sudd region of White Nile, which extends for about 500 km, is a swampy area about 17,000 km2. Besides the River network there are isolate eastern rain reservoirs
• and ponds distributed in the western and regions of Sudan and a vast network of irrigation canals in the Gezera Agricultural Scheme (2.2million feddan of fertile land and over 4000km of large water
• canals with some18 billion m3 of water available)
• so some 100,00 Mt of fish could be produced in Gesera ponds and cages in the short – run, with increase revenues to framers and economics development in rural communities .Benefits include multiple water use for fish and crops.
FISH PRODUCTION
• Inland fishery is mainly concerned with the major reservoirs of SUDAN.
• The total estimated sustainable fish yield of the freshwater is over 110,000 metric tons/year.
• The actual present production level is about 30-40%.
Required fish for Sudan population: 534,141 MT/year.(according to the fish consuption ratio which are appro 1.3 kg/personal/year
THE INLAND FISHERY
• of the Sudan can be considered The inland fishery as three main sectors as follows:
• 1-Subsistence sector:
• Found all over inland waters, mainly in the south in swamps area, such fishing is undertaken with spear, simple nets, cats net or lines from shores. Production level more than 10000 tons/year.
• 2-Artisanl Sector:
• Mainly in White Niles and Blue Niles. Usually a fisherman owns one traditional oar-propelled boat and is sharing the catch with 4 to 5 crewmen
• 3-Commercial Sector:
• This less developed. In the south traders used to set up seasonal camps for producing sun-dried salted fish, which was sold locally in areas remote from Nile or to some neighboring countries e.g. Zaire. In some areas like Roseries and Nubia Lake small commercial sector enterprises and companies recently evolved as commercial sector.
PROCESSING
• About 90% of fish production in Sudan is marketed fresh. Other significant methods of handling and processing involve sun-dried-salted –wet-salted fish and smoked.

PRODUCTION LEVELS
Water body Present- Nubia Lake Production metric ton- 500- Target increase metric ton2500
Water body Present- Jebel Aulia - Production metric ton- 7000 Target increase metric tonـــــ
Water body Present- River Nile- Production metric ton- 1600- Target increase metric ton400
Water body Present- Reseires Reservoir Production metric ton- 1000 Target increase metric ton200
Water body Present- Sennar Reservoir- Production metric ton- 1000 Target increase metric ton ــــ
Water body Present- Khashim El Geraba Dam- Production metric ton- 500 Target increase metric ton300
Water body Present- Western Sudan Production metric ton - 300 Target increase metric ton700
Water body Present- Southern Sudan- Production metric ton- 12000 Target increase metric ton22000
Water body Present- Red Sea- Production metric ton-9000 Target increase metric tonـــ
Water body Present- Fish Culture- Production metric tonــــ Target increase metric tonـــ

FISHING PRACTICE
• Fishing practice is believed to have started in Sudan during the Eighteenth century a long the whole Nile system.
1. The industry characterized by traditional means of production employing a variety of primitive gears ranging from hooks, lines, spears and fish traps. Recently with increase the demand of fish. This lead to use of Nylon seine And gill nets, trammels and trolling methods as well as motorized steel and fiber boats.
2. MAIN SPECIES
Indigenous Species:
• The indigenous fish stock is formed of some 129 spp. belonging to more than 13 families.
• The fish species e.g. are Lates niloticus, Bagrus bayad, B. domac, Tilapia spp., Labeo spp., Alestes spp., Hydrocynus spp., Clarias spp., Synodontis spp., and ect…

EXOTICS SPECIES
Species- Gambusia affinis Year - 1929 Source Ital Objective Malaria control
Species - Salmo gairdner Year 1929 Source Kenya Objective Sport
Species -Trout) Year 1947 Source Kenya Objective Aquatic weed control
Species- Tilapia melanopleir Year 1953 Source Egypt Objective Poly culture
Species- Cyprinus carpio Year 1957 Source India Objective Poly culture
Species - Grass carp Year 1975 Source ــــــ Objective Weed control

RED SEA
• The outstanding features of The Red Sea are:
• Very high salinity.
• Absence of river.
• Absence of major oceanic currents.
• Presence of coral, fringing, barrier reef and atolls.
• Very narrow continental shelf.
• The above factors have adversely affected fish production.
MARINE FISHERIES
• The SUDAN coastline of about 720km consists almost entirely of coral reefs with a line of offshore reefs (from 5 to 25 miles off the shoreline).
• The marine fish catch from the Red Sea is less than 1000 tons per year (FAO). The landing points are Port Sudan, Suakin, and Mohammed Goal.
Two types are used for fishing. The slender canoes (Huirs, 10-20 ft long) used in shallow waters in side the reefs and harbors. As well as small boats (15-25 ft long) powered by oars and sails–only a minority of which are motorized, used for fishing with troll lines, hand lines, gillnets and beach seines
THE STATUS MARINE FISHERIES IN SUDAN
There about 65 species of economically important marine bony fishes in Sudan , in addition to sharks, rays, shrimps, lobsters, crabs, molluscs and sea cucumber. In artisanal fisheries, the nine following taxa account for 60 - 70% of the catches: gushar (Epinephelus spp.), bohar (Lutjanus bohar), asmoot (Lutjanus gibbus) shaoor (Lethrinus spp.), bayad (Carangidae), najil (Plectropomus maculatus), farisi (Aprion sp.), abu garin (Naso unicornis), arabi (Valamugil seheli) and sharks (mainly Carcharhinidae and Sphyrnidae).
MOLLUSKS
The shellfishery potential may be characterized as unique and holds considerable promise. The black-lip mother-of-pearl shell Pinctata margaritifera and Trochus dentatus is the present the only mollusk’s of commercial importance in Sudan
FISH FARMING IN SUDAN
Fish culture in Sudan started in 1953, at El shagra, as experimental demonstration farm, for providing basic research stand- point data, subsequently used for monitoring
Applied research with the objective of expansion of aquacultures practice. After that fish Culture extended among interested people, institutions in the Agovernment, semi governmental and private sector a(more than 50 farms such as Waha and El sellaid Gov and Jebel awlia private farm ) for different purposes such as: -
1.Fish production for consumption
control the weeds in the irrigation canals.2
control mosquito larvae , sport..3
SPECIES CULTURED
There are three species commonly used in fish farming in the Sudan, but the
Oreochromis niloticus was found to be most appropriate and it was a popular table fish
These are
1.Oreochromis niloticus
Sarotherdon galilees.2
Tilapia zilli.3
Sometimes the farmers they are used the following species to control the over-population of Tilapia:
Lates niloticus (Nile perch) 1.
Clarias lazera.2
Bagrus Bayad.3

FISH FARMING TECHNIQUES
There are different fish ponds and designs used in Sudan these are:
Earthen pond.1
Concrete ponds.2
3.Pens
There are two systems adopted:
Extensive culture. {Using Organic manure, chicken and cow.1
2.Semi- intensive cultures. {Using organic manure, inorganic (super phosphate, calcium carbonate and quick lime) +supplementary feeds (cotton seed +wheat bran)
SEED COLLECTION
The collection of the fingerlings in Sudan by these methods:
1/Collection from the Rivers (during the breeding season).
2/ Rearing the brood stock collected from the wild.
3/ Fisheries Research Center ponds.
4/ Khartoum State(Gov) Hatchery

STOCKING RATE
The stocking density rate in Sudan is about 8.000-10.000 spp/ha
The maximum productivity of the fish ranged between
2.5-3 tons/ha/year for tow crops

FISH DISEASES
There some diseases and predators occurs during the fish farming:
A-Worms
-Nematodes
-Termatodes
-Cestods
B- Predation
C-Viral Diseases
D- Bacterial diseases
E- Nutritional diseases
F-Deformities problems

PROBLEMS OF FISH CULTURED IN SUDAN
Weakened of the basic infrastructures.1
2.Lack of inputs
High qualities of seed.3
Feeds.4
Hatcheries.5
Equipments and tools.6
Inadequate communications between the research centers and the production units.7
Lack of fish farming techniques, experience and qualified personnel.8
Lack of adequate funds.9
10.fish is considered less profitable, more risky if compared with the short-term agricultural investment and insecure business for investors
WHAT CAN BE DONE:
A national aquaculture policy and strategy is needed to define the role and responsibilitiesofGovernment and private sector.Aquaculture awareness and steady continues and financial support is neede .in-side and outside training programe should be adopted in order to rectified the professional.
CONCLUTION
Fish farming is considered to be one of the important factors for social and economic development, contributed in providing food, creating opportunity job, poverty reduction,, increasing export and reducing
In Sudan it is hoped that aquaculture practices done successfully, and our training can contributes meaningfully in this practices. So aquaculture may become more profitable busin
ess

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country Report - fishres - sudan
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